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Gemstone Reference Guide

Use our gemstone reference guide to find out additional information about your favourite gems. Wether you want to know which star sign or wedding anniversary a gem is linked to you will find it here. Also included on this page is the durability & MOHs scale hardness details. This list is constantly expanding.

Gemstones A-J

A

ABALONE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Abalones are members of the Gastropoda class of mollusks that have a one-piece shells. Abalone shells have a dichroic, tortoise shell like appearance. They are a source of mother of pearl.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: The Paua shell is part of the abalone family, but has deeper colours of blue, green, and purple.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Japan and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: The mother of pearl is used for the treatment of high blood pressure, dizziness, and heart palpitations
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

AGATE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Agate is a member of the Chalcedony or Quartz family characterised by its fineness of grain, brightness of colour, and dramatic banding. It consists of amorphous or cryptocrystalline silica alongside the aforementioned mineral Chalcedony. They are typically associated with volcanic rocks or ancient lavas where they occur as nodules forming from solutions of silica at relatively shallow depths and low temperatures. They are extremely sensitive to the physical and chemical conditions around them forming in concentric layers and filling cavities in a host rock. The results are round bands similar to the rings in tree trunks, whilst also appearing as eyes, scallops, or as landscapes with dendrites that look like trees.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Hard, durable stones which can be dyed, sliced very thinly, can be highly polished, occur in a very wide variety of colours, and are generally affordable. Varies from extremely translucent to opaque.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Ranges from transparent to opaque and all colours in between including blue, brown, grey, green, purple, and white.
* Gemstone Sources: Africa, Asia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, England, Germany, India, Italy, Mexico, Nepal, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6.5 to 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The word Agate comes from the Greek name for a stone originally found in the Achates River in Sicily (now known as the Drillo River). Agate has been found with the remains of Stone Age man in France from as early as 20,000-16,000 B.C. The Egyptians used agates prior to 3000 B.C. for talismans, amulets, rings, seals, and vessels. Early civilisations used eye beads made from carved agate discs to protect them from evil and to bring good luck.
* Gemstone Uses: Their fluid forms lend themselves to attractive cabochons and similar flat or rounded jewellery formats.
* Gemstone Care: It is often dyed or stained in a wide range of colours using colour-fast aniline dyes. These dyes can fade when exposed to sunlight for long periods of time.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Soothing both mind and body as well as improving memory, concentration and perspective. With benefits for courage, honesty and stamina. It is also said to help discern truth, prevent insomnia, and is a strong emotional healer. Individual Agate types have their own specific properties.
* Birthstone: September.
* Marriage: 12th and 14th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Gemini and Virgo.

AMAZONITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Amazonite is blue-green variety of microcline (a feldspar mineral). Its brilliant colour is attributed to the presence of lead or iron in its composition.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: It is an opaque to translucent stone, often found with white, yellow or gray inclusions and a silky lustre or silvery sheen. The most prized colour is a rich clear watery blue, with large clear stones amongst the most valuable semi-precious gemstones available.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: It varies in colour from greenish blue to light blue, to soft green, pink and yellow.
* Gemstone Sources: Russia and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Its name is derived from the Amazon River, although no deposits have actually been found there! The most sought after amazonite historically come from Russia, where deposits are found in granite along the Ilmen Mountains. Europeans familiar with the Russian stone confused it with another green stone from South America’s Amazon Basin, which turned out to be a form of Nephrite Jade but b then the name had stuck. The Pike’s Peak district of Colorado, USA, became the most important source of amazonite after 1876 eventually put competing Russian mineral vendors out of business.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care: Because Amazonite is slightly soft, and can be scratched easily by other stones, it is wise to store Amazonite separate from other gems. It is also sensitive to chemicals, abrasives, acids, ammonia, and heat. Never use hot water, a steamer, or ultrasonic cleaners with this stone. Use mild soap and room temperature tap water with a soft cloth so you do not diminish the lustre f the gemstone.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Encourages truth, sincerity, honour, self-love, communication, eloquence, integrity, trust, clairvoyance, clarity, prophecy and openness. Believed to improves one’s married life, calms nerves, and enrich creativity.
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a

AMBER

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Amber is fossilised tree resin, found in rocks from recent times back to the Carboniferous Period more than 300 million years ago. However, most amber is found in rocks younger than Jurassic Period or about 140 million years ago. It is indicative of an ancient tropical forest and in its fresh form, resin has been known to collect insects, moss, lichen or leaves in its sticky clutches, preserving them in perfect splendour for thousands of years.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Amber is generally yellow or yellow brown and translucent.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Brown, golden, and green and yellow-orange,
* Gemstone Sources: Dominican Republic, Poland and Baltic Russia are considered primary sources whilst Canada, Czech Republic, Columbia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Lebanon, Mexico, Myanmar, Romania, Spain and the UNited States are also notable.
* Gemstone Hardness: 2 to 2.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Amber has been discovered in archaeological findings from ancient European cultures dating back to the 13th millennium B.C. Prized by the ancients for having captured the warmth of the sun, it was often cut into animal figures in the belief that it would make them easier to hunt. Amber jewellery was popular in ancient Roman and was more expensive than the most valuable commodities, including slaves. The 17th century was the golden age of amber craft with the city of Gdansk in Poland as its epicentre. During this period, notable craftsmen and artists created all manner of decorative objects large and small for royalty and the wealthy of Europe.
* Gemstone Uses: It is a beautiful stone that is cut and polished and used as a valuable gemstone. It is very light in weight which allows it to be used in a large jewellery piece without discomfort. It can contain preserved insects and other animals and plants that are tens of millions of years old. These fossil inclusions usually add to amber’s unique look and in many cases greatly increase its value. Amber is often imitated by plastics, coloured glasses and some modern tree resins. However, its hardness is usually greater and it is tougher than other resins. Its low specific gravity (amber can float on salt water) and inclusions can distinguish it from plastics and glasses.
* Gemstone Care: Due to its porous nature, sweat and skin oils can be absorbed, clouding the surface of the amber. Avoid the use of jewellery cloths that are impregnated with polishing compounds, as these will cloud and scratch the surface. Ultrasonic cleaners should never be used as they can shatter the stone.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Amber attracts warm, loyal, and generous people into the life of the wearer whilst enhancing logic and wit in difficult situations. It is also said to enhance artistic endeavours, help overcome obstacles and bring relief from melancholy and grief.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: Taurus.

AMETHYST

* Gemstone Physical Composition: A semi precious crystalline Quartz stone whose distinctive colour is caused by the presence of both iron and manganese at the point of formation. It is a formed in silica-rich liquids deposited in gas cavities, or geodes, in lava. It occurs in crystalline masses, but the crystals are generally not well developed, so they are generally found as clusters of crystal points. It is closely related to Citrine which is created when Amethyst is exposed to heat when forming. When Amethyst and Citrine are found together it is called Ametrine and is very sought after.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Always purple, lilac or mauve in colour with occasional red dots or blues hues.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: n/a.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Russia, South Korea and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The stone’s name is derived from the Greek word amethystos, meaning ‘not drunken’, as it is thought people of ancient times believed it to protect the wearer from drunkenness – though a more likely explanation is that the Greeks were referring to the almost wine-like color of some stones that they may have encountered. Amethyst was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians and was largely used in antiquity for small engraved gemstones or intaglio. Medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle and amethyst beads have been found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England. In terms of value Amethyst used to sit alongside Diamonds, Sapphires, Rubies and Emeralds in terms of value but with the discovery of sizeable deposits in places like Brazil its price has fallen alongside its scarcity.
* Gemstone Uses: Often cut gems of amethyst are graded using the terms: Siberian, Uruguayan or Bahrain to represent High, Medium and Low grade samples respectively. This is regardless of the actual source. Because of the patchiness of the colour distribution in the crystals, Amethyst is often cut as brilliant round cuts to maximise the colour. Other cuts are used when the colour is better distributed.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Used for meditation, cleansing, whilst giving relief from insomnia, grief, and addictions. The Greeks and Romans used it as way to remain sober.
* Birthstone: February (Wisdom, spirituality, sobriety, security).
* Marriage: 4th, 6th and 17th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Aquarius and Gemini.

APATITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: This is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, chlorapatite and bromapatite. It is found in igneous sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. This mineral is also found in the teeth and bones of humans, fish, birds, cows, and other vertebrate animals living and extinct. It typically grows in hexagonal shapes.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: A soft stone which can also be brittle. It is usually found in tones of green.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Typically green but also found in browns, blues, pinks, violets and yellows.
* Gemstone Sources: Brazil, Burma, Canada, Czech Republic, Germany, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Mozambique, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: In the last 100 years this mineral has found greater use as a fertiliser or as a means of preserving detail in the structure of fossils than it has as a of beauty. Prior to that its history remains vague. The name Apatite comes from a Greek word meaning ‘to deceive’ in allusion to its similarity to other more valuable minerals such as Olivine, Peridot and Beryl.
* Gemstone Uses: Because of its soft and brittle nature Apatite is only occasionally used as a gemstone with transparent stones of clean colour usually being faceted whilst chatoyant specimens are cut for cabochons. Chatoyant stones are known as cat’s-eye apatite and transparent green stones are known as asparagus stone with the blue stones called Moroxite. It is primarily used as a source of phosphorous to be used in fertiliser.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Encourages communication, concentration and clarity of thought. It increases confidence and your ability to learn as well as improving co-ordination. It has also been used as a hunger suppressant.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

AQUAMARINE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Belongs to the Beryl gemstone family and has a more evenly distributed colour than its close relative the emerald. Aquamarine is coloured by trace amounts of iron.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Gem quality aquamarine is usually free of inclusions and possesses a superior brilliance, while bead grade aquamarine tends to have interesting inclusions and opaque areas. The more intense the colour of this stone, the higher its value.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: A brilliant clear gemstone that ranges from blue to blue green.
* Gemstone Sources: The best quality stones come from Brazil, but they are also found in Afghanistan, Nigeria, Madagascar, Mozambique, Pakistan, Russia, Zambia, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7.5 to 8 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Legend suggests that Aquamarine was found in mermaids’ treasure chests, making it renowned as a lucky stone for sailors, with its name derived from the Latin words for water and sea.
* Gemstone Uses: Gem quality Aquamarine is usually free of inclusions and possesses a superior brilliance, while bead grade Aquamarine tends to have interesting inclusions and opaque areas. The more intense the colour of this stone, the higher its market value. It is a hard gemstone, which makes it the perfect choice for jewellery that is worn frequently.*
* Gemstone Care: Most gem Aquamarines have been heat treated to produce the popular blue green colours from less desirable yellow or pale stones.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Denotes hope, health and youth. It is said to ward off seasickness and to safeguard travellers particularly over water and as such has been a favourite of mariners through the ages. In addition it helps relieve anxiety, fear and restlessness.
* Birthstone: March (Beauty, honesty, loyalty, happiness).
* Marriage: 16th and 19th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Pisces.

ARAGONITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Aragonite is a polymorph of Calcite, which means that it has the same chemistry as Calcite but it has a different structure, and more importantly, different symmetry and crystal shapes.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Aragonite is a constituent of many sea creatures’ shell structures. Most bivalve animals and corals secrete Aragonite for their shells and pearls are composed of mostly Aragonite. The pearlization and iridescent colours in sea shells such as Abalone are made possible by several minute layers of Aragonite. Other environments of formation include hot spring deposits, cavities in volcanic rocks, caves and mines.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Can be white or colourless or with usually subdued shades of red, yellow, orange, brown, green and even blue. Lustre is vitreous to dull.
* Gemstone Sources: Austria, England, Germany, France, Italy, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Scotland, Spain and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 3.5 to 4 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Aragon in Spain is where Aragonite was first discovered and from where it gets its name.
* Gemstone Uses: Used in cement and in steel production, beads, ornamental carvings and as mineral specimens.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties:
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

AVENTURINE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Another member of the Chalcedony or Quartz family. Easily identifiable by its colour and the flecks within the stone produced by mineral inclusions most usually iron oxide (hematite), or green mica (fuchsite). Its granular appearance and translucence are its most striking characteristics. Most aventurine is naturally reddish brown or yellow, though a green variety is also known.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: It is most commonly found in a reddish brown or yellow colour though a forest green colour is also found..
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Also found in blue, brown, grey, orange, white and yellow variations.
* Gemstone Sources: Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, Tanzania, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The mineral is named for its resemblance to the Aventurine glass of Venice, Italy created around the 1700s. This glass is said to have been named when a Murano workman accidentally dropped copper filings into molten glass, creating an attractive new material. This glass was named Avventurino for the Italian word avventura which translates as ‘by chance’.
* Gemstone Uses: The green Aventurine found on the market, as well as the red and blue, is almost certainly dyed to achieve its colour.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Said to increase libido, reduce stress, and strengthen blood and muscle tissue. It is also seen as a talisman for gamblers.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: 8th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

Azurite

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Azurite is a copper carbonate hydroxide. Green malachite is closely associated with Azurite in many ways. Not only do they frequently occur together but they also have very similar chemical make up.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Is a very popular mineral because of its unparalleled colour, a deep blue called ‘azure’, hence its name. The colour is due to the presence of copper and the way it combines with carbonate and hydroxyls. Transparent if in thin crystals, otherwise translucent to opaque.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Azure, deep blue or pale blue if found in small crystals or crusts.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Congo, Europe, Mexico, Namibia, Morocco, Namibia, Mexico, Morocco, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 3.5 to 4 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Azure is derived from the Arabic word for ‘blue’.
* Gemstone Uses: Ornamental stone, pigment, minor ore of copper, and jewellery.
* Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Augments clear understanding, cleansing, healing, transformation, perspective, purification, patience, kindness, intuition, prophecy and truth.
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a

B

BLOODSTONE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Bloodstone is opaque, green, spotted variety of Chalcedony.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: The dark green of Bloodstone is spotted with red because of the presence of iron oxides. These distinctive spots seem to resemble blood, thus giving the stone its name.
* Gemstone Colour Variations:
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Brazil, China, India, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness:
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* Gemstone Uses:
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Brings greater consciousness, harmony and serenity. It helps overcome anger and enables forgiveness as well as sharpening perception and enhancing telepathy. It eases emotional and physical stress, assists in meeting and conquering challenges, and promotes safe journeys. It invigorates and oxygenates blood stream as well as helping to balance iron deficiencies. Bloodstone also benefits the adrenal gland and addresses bladder problems.
* Birthstone: March (Endurance).
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: Aquarius and Pisces.

BRONZITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
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* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a

C

CALCITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Calcite is an anhydrous carbonate, and one of the most widely distributed minerals on the Earth’s surface. It is a common constituent of sedimentary rocks.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: In crystallised form, Calcite has a vitreous lustre.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Calcite is colourless or white but can become green, pink, peach, golden, orange, yellow, red, blue, grey, or black when other compounds blend with it during formation.
* Gemstone Sources:
* Gemstone Hardness: 3 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
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* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a

CARNELIAN or CORNELIAN

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Carnelian is a variety of the silica mineral chalcedony coloured by impurities of iron oxide.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: The colour can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost black coloration. Brighter colours are usually the result of heat treatment.
* Gemstone Sources: Brazil, India, and Uruguay.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name carnelian is said to be derived from the Latin word carnis, or ‘flesh’, due to its colour.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It brings good luck, happiness, success, and prosperity. Increases awareness and improves memory. It also helps settle disputes and enhances accomplishments. Carnelian energises the blood, protects against illness and is generally beneficial for tissue regeneration, infections, and inflammations.
* Birthstone: July (Luck, safety)
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: Virgo.

CHALCEDONY

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Chalcedony is a form of quartz crystal.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Brown, blue, black and white to grey.
* Gemstone Sources:
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: In general, Chalcedony gives success in lawsuits, good health, safe travels, and protects against harmful spirits. However, there are many varieties of Chalcedony each with its own particular properties.
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

CHLORITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Translucent to opaque.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Lilac coloured to violet.
* Gemstone Sources:
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: It was named after a river in Siberia, Russia and was recognised in 1978 as an independent mineral.
* Gemstone Uses:
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It can be used to treat disorders of the eyes and heart, to allay headaches, and general aches and pains. It is said to improve degraded conditions of the liver and the pancreas, and to stimulate and regulate the blood pressure and pulse rate.
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a

CHRYSOBERYL

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* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a
*
CHRYSOCOLLA

* Gemstone Physical Composition: A blue green member of the quartz family.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It is associated with tranquility, serenity, peace, wisdom, intuition, patience, nurturing, acceptance, tolerance, unconditional love, calmness, meditation, honesty, hope, intimacy, gentleness and sensitivity.
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a

CHRYSOPRASE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Another member of the Quartz family and a variety of Chalcedony. Its colouring comes from the presence of nickel.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: It is a translucent stone and usually a very bright apple green colour.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Dark green.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Germany, Poland, Tanzania, Russia and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 to 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Used by both the Greeks and Romans as a decorative stone.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care: May fade in sunlight.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It helps to rid a person of negative thoughts and irritability whilst providing guidance in questions of courage and self expression. It is also a bringer of happiness, adaptability, a sense of humour whilst also alleviating fears and encouraging enthusiasm. Bestows a cleansing and calming affect.
* Birthstone: May (Fertility, secrecy).
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

CHRYSOTINE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
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* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

CITRINE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Citrine is a clear yellow variety of Quartz. It occurs in proximity to Amethyst and the two can be found mixed as Ametrine. In fact much of the citrine on the market today is actually heat-treated amethyst. All that is required is for a kiln to reach and hold a specific temperature for long enough and a purple amethyst will turn to citrine. Natural citrine is not common and occurs in lighter hues than the heat-treated material. It is found in only small deposits and is therefore quite rare.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: A clear yellow gemstone which ranges from light to dark.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Variations across the yellow colour spectrum – ranging from pale yellow to yellow brown, and occasionally deep red.
* Gemstone Sources: Brazil, France, Hungary, Russia and Spain.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name citrine comes from the French citron, or ‘lemon’, after its colour.
* Gemstone Uses:
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Good for digestion as well as the heart, liver and muscles. It is said to encourage clarity of thought and creativity. It is energising, invigorating, and positive. It increases motivation and relieves feelings of inertia.
* Birthstone: November (Hope, cheerfulness, youth, health, fidelity).
* Marriage: 13th and 17th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Scorpio.

CORAL

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* Gemstone Care: Keep away from harsh chemicals and chlorine in swimming pools.
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* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: 35th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

CORUNDUM

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Corundum is the crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the basic rock-forming minerals. Corundum is naturally clear or coloured by impurities.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 9 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Gemstone Uses: Due to its hardness, Corundum is used as an abrasive in sandpaper. Emery is an impure and less abrasive variety of Corundum.
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* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

CRYSTAL

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* Birthstone: April (Eternity, courage and health)
* Marriage: 3rd and 15th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

D

DALMATIAN JASPER

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* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.
*
DIAMOND

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Diamond is the hardest natural occurring material. Diamond is a natural allotrope of carbon. The crystal bond structure of diamonds give the stone its hardness and differentiates it from graphite, which is the main allotrope of carbon.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 10 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Clear Diamonds bond relationships, and encourage innocence, love, longevity, balance, clarity, profundity, abundance, courage, purity, hope and discernment. This stone helps to get to the essence of things. Black Diamonds grant the courage to look within without illusion. Blue Diamonds inspire people to take better care of their health and also strengthens their power. Pink Diamonds foster creative expression whilst Yellow Diamonds make people more thoughtful and considerate.
* Birthstone: April (Invincibility, clarity, purity, eternal love).
* Marriage: 60th and 75th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Aires and Leo.

DOLOMITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Encourages creative expression and humour. It soothes and provides relief during time of mourning. Promotes adaptability, strong family bonds and longevity. It imparts strength and protects from illness.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.
*
DUMORTIERITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: A hard fibrous blue or green mineral consisting of hydrated aluminium borosilicate.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Displays a vitreous to dull lustre and is translucent to transparent.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Dark blue, violet blue or reddish brown.
* Gemstone Sources: Canada, France, Italy Madagascar, Namibia, Norway, Sri Lanka, Poland, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 to 8.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Dumortierite was named in 1881 after Eugène Dumortier, a 19th-century French palaeontologist, who discovered it in the Rhone Alps region of France.
* Gemstone Uses: Commonly used as a semi precious ornamental stone, in the manufacture of high-grade ceramics or porcelains, and as mineral specimens. Large specimens are carved into cabochons, beads, sculptures, eggs and spheres and in China it has been used as a lapis lazuli imitation.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Promotes harmony, orderliness, precision, self discipline and the ability to organise. It helps people become more businesslike, systematic, tidy and methodical.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

E

EMERALD

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Emerald is a green variety of Beryl. The green coloration is caused by small amounts of chromium and enhanced by traces of iron.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Unlike other Beryls, Emeralds often contain inclusions and other flaws. These flaws are not considered negative aspects but are instead considered part of the character of the stone. However these inclusions can cause Emeralds to be brittle and they need to be protected from hard contact. Emeralds also tend to have thin scratches on their surface requiring the application of a layer of wax or oil to smooth out their appearance and enhance their colour.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 8 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Its name is derived from the French esmeraude, which in turn goes back, via Latin, to the Greek root word smaragdos, meaning ‘green gemstone’. It has been treasured since 4000 B.C., when it was traded in the early gem markets of Babylon. Egyptian Emerald mines were worked as early as 2000 B.C. and were the main source of emeralds in Europe until the 16th century. By this time finer quality Emeralds were being mined in Colombia, and eventually they became the world’s most coveted emeralds.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Emeralds promote love, romance, joy, cleansing, clairvoyance, clear vision, memory, faith, intuition, serenity, intelligence and communication. It is a truth promoting stone, inspiring deep understanding from within.
* Birthstone: May (Patience, understanding, foresight).
* Marriage: 20th and 55th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Capricorn and Taurus.

F

FLUORITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Fluorite is a mineral composed of calcium fluoride. It is an isometric mineral with a cubic crystal habit. Fluorite is named for its property of fluorescence, or its ability to fluoresce under ultraviolet light.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Not technically a gemstone due to its softness but still a beautiful mineral. In its pure form it is white or colourless but trace elements provide the different hues that make up the variations in colour.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Clear in its purest form but also blue, green, pink, purple, red and yellow.
* Gemstone Sources: Found in Austria, Canada, England, Mexico, Norway, Switzerland and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 4 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Ancient Egyptians used fluorite to carve statues and scarabs whilst the Chinese have used it in carvings for more than 300 years.
* Gemstone Uses: It has limited use as a gemstone because it is relatively soft and easily scratched. Despite its fragility, stones are faceted and can be polished very brightly.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It is said to promote healing emotionally, mentally and spiritually. As well as being an ancient cure for cancer it is said to heal bone ailments including arthritis. In addition it helps the libido, the menopause and pre-menstrual tension. It benefits the heart, teeth, bones, spleen, and blood vessels.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

G

GARNET

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Garnets are a group of common silicate minerals that have similar crystal structures and chemical compositions. These stones are formed under high temperatures and pressures and as such are used by geologists as a gauge for the formation of other rocks in the vicinity. They are also an indicator mineral for diamonds.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: This gemstone owes its brilliance to a high refraction of light.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: They come in a wide array of colour variations, including reds, red pinks, oranges, greens, yellow browns, and some that change colour throughout the stone.
* Gemstone Sources: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Myanmar, Scotland, South Africa, Switzerland, Tanzania, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: They are named after the Latin granatus for ‘seed like’, possibly because the crystals resemble the fruit’s colour and shape.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: A protective stone which is also said to balance a persons natural energy. It provides abundance, increases intelligence, and encourages education, honour and change. It helps overcome inferiority complexes by enhancing self esteem. It promotes truthfulness, healing and understanding whilst balancing solitude and peace. Helps deal with death. Purifies, fortifies, and revitalises bodily systems and has long been recognised for its use as an anti-inflammatory and blood-clotting agent.
* Birthstone: January (Strength, per-severity, prosperity, health)
* Marriage: 2nd and 6th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Capricorn.

GYPSUM

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Gypsum is a soft mineral composed of calcium sulphate dihydrate. Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened or twinned crystals and transparent cleavable masses called selenite. When Gypsum has a silky and fibrous texture it is called Satin Spar.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 2 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: A protective stone which is also said to balance a persons natural energy.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

H

HASSONITE

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* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

HEMIMORPHITE

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* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

HOWLITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Howlite crystallises in the form of white nodules, compact masses, and tabular crystals.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It can be used to calm communication, to facilitate awareness and to encourage emotional expression. It can be used to eliminate pain, stress and rage. It encourages subtlety and tact. It is useful for balancing calcium levels in the body and as such it be used in the treatment of disorders of the teeth, bone structure, and soft tissue.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

I

IOLITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Iolite crystallises in the form of masses, grains, and short prismatic crystals. It also exhibits pleochroic qualities.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: The colour range includes blue, brown, dark violet, grey, green, and yellow.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 7 to 7.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Enables independence, success, prosperity and happiness. Eliminates confusion whilst relieving anxiety. It helps overcome flaws and attain accomplishments. Encourages forgiveness. Increases awareness and memory.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: 21st Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

J
JADE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Jade is a name that for many centuries was applied to gemstones people were bringing to Europe from China and Central America. It wasn’t until 1863 that it was realised that the term ‘Jade’ was being applied to two different minerals. Because of the difficulties in distinguishing between these two minerals, even today they are both still called Jade. The first mineral, Nephrite, is an amphibole silicate (basic magnesium iron silicate) and is usually only green and creamy white. The second, Jadeite, is a sodium aluminium silicate that can have the full range of colours known as Jade.
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* Gemstone Sources: Jadeite is found in Guatemala, Japan, Myanmar, and the United States.
* Nephrite is found in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Central Asia, China, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Myanmar, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United States, and Zimbabwe.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 to 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: It was highly prized as a remedy by Egyptian healers. Axe heads and other tools of made from Jade have been found in archeological sites throughout the world. The Spanish Conquistadors adopted the use of Jadeite when in Central America, often wearing amulets made from it.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Jade dispels negativity and helps balance emotions. It encourages change as well as promoting heroism, idealism and beauty. It increases fertility and longevity. Provides wisdom when evaluating issues or problems. Improves concentration and in turn encourages education. It benefits eye disorders and kidney stones.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: 12th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Leo and Pisces.

JASPER

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Jasper is a form of chalcedony, or microcrystalline quartz.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Its patterns are much less regular and defined than those of the other chalcedony variety, agate. They derive their colourful patterns from the presence of other minerals. Jaspers are generally opaque due to the inclusion of microscopic ‘grains’ of crystalline quartz.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: It is usually based around the red, blue, brown or green palettes.
* Gemstone Sources: France, Germany, India, Russia, Venezuela, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Prized since antiquity it is named from the Greek word iaspis, meaning ‘spotted stone’.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Enhances confidence and understanding. It Brings truth, destiny, and monetary wealth. Helps overcome jealousy. It has strong healing qualities, mainly for the physical body, soothing nerves, aiding hearing problems, consumption, haemorrhage and emphysema.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign:n/a

JET

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Organic in origin, it is formed from the remains of wood immersed in stagnant water millions of years ago, then compacted and fossilised by pressure.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: It is black or dark brown but may contain pyrite inclusions, which have a brassy colour and metallic lustre. When burned or touched with a hot needle, it exudes the characteristic smell of coal.
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* Gemstone Sources: England, China, France, Germany, India, Poland, Russia, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: Jet was popular for mourning jewellery in the 19th century because of its somber tone and modest appearance. It has been traditionally fashioned into rosaries for monks again for its visual appearance.
* Gemstone Uses: Jet takes a good polish and is often faceted.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Brings success, prosperity, and happiness. It improves memory. Jet dispels fear and cowardice whilst protecting against violence and illness. Benefits headache and asthma sufferers.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

Gemstones K-Z

KYANITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Kyanite is a polymorph with two other minerals: andalusite and sillimanite. A polymorph is a mineral that shares the same chemistry but a different crystal structure with another, or other, minerals. Crystals are flat, pinacoid dominated, and prismatic often embedded in metamorphic rocks and quartz veins.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Kyanite has a nearly unique characteristic in that it has a wide variation in hardness in the same crystal face. The hardness of kyanite is approximately 4.5 when scratched parallel to the long axis of the crystal and approximately 6.5 when scratched perpendicular to or across the long axis. It has a vitreous to almost pearly lustre and is transparent to translucent.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: In its perfect form it has a near sapphire like blue colour but can also be white, grey or green. Colour is often not consistent throughout the crystal and can be blotchy or in streaks.
* Gemstone Sources: Brazil, India, Kenya, Russia, Serbia, Switzerland, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 4.5 to 6.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses: Manufacture of spark plugs and as mineral specimens and beads.
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* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

L

LABRADORITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Labradorite is a catch all term for a sodium rich variety of plagioclase feldspar found in igneous or metamorphic rocks.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: A dull stone in the rough that takes on a metallic lustre and sheen when polished. When light hits labradorite from a particular angle it can display striking rainbow coloured reflections known as Schiller.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Stones usually have a light green grey base but may contain orange, yellow, or red.
* Gemstone Sources: Canada, Finland, Norway, and Russia.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The original source for this stone was St. Paul in Labrador, Canada as early as 1770.
* Gemstone Uses: Stones that show a play of colour, or Schiller, is the most popular for use in jewellery.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Keeps one centred. Brings joy, kindness and good fortune. It is said to be beneficial for healing infections.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

LAPIS LAZULI

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Lapis Lazuli is is a semi-precious stone prized since antiquity for its intense blue colour and inclusions that shine like stars. It is composed of grains of several blue minerals, including lazurite and sodalite. This complex, opaque gemstone additionally has a matrix of calcite and speckles of pyrite giving it a distinctive fluorescence. The rich blue colour is due to the sulphur inherent in the structure of lazurite.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: The composition and colour of lapis lazuli varies, but it is the intense dark blue, with minor patches of white calcite and brassy yellow pyrite, that is considered to be the best quality.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Royal blue to Denim blue
* Gemstone Sources: Afghanistan, Angola, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Pakistan, Russia, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Its name is a combination of the Latin word lapis or ‘stone’ and the Arabian name Azul meaning ‘blue’.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care: It is polished with paraffin wax.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Attracts good fortune whilst bringing inner peace, tranquility, and happiness. It heightens concentration, clarity and instinct. Promotes success in love matters. Encourages cheerfulness, self-confidence and provides sense of general well being. Helps during times of mourning. Releases tension or anxiety and in turn aids sleep. It is said to activate the thyroid gland, benefit blood circulation, childbirth, digestion and feminine discomfort.
* Birthstone: September (Understanding, protection).
* Marriage: 7th and 9th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius.

M
MALACHITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Malachite is usually found in opaque green masses with its colour derived from the presence of copper.
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* Gemstone Sources: Zaire is the most important producer.
* Gemstone Hardness: 3.5 to 4 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The Egyptians used Malachite as early as 4000 B.C. for amulets, jewellery and cosmetics particularly powdered eye shadow. During the Middle Ages, Malachite was worn for protection from sorcery and black magic.
* Gemstone Uses: Crystals are generally too small for faceting so Malachite is usually carved or polished to reveal alternating bands of light and dark green.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Traditionally worn to ward off danger and illness and as a talisman for children.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: 13th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

MOONSTONE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Moonstone is the opalescent variety of orthoclase, with a blue or white sheen like the glow of the moon. This is caused by the reflection of light from the internal structure, made up of alternating layers of albite and orthoclase feldspar.
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* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mexico, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 to 6.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: In the Orient Moonstone is seen as a ‘good luck’ stone. It is also a sacred stone in India where it is usually displayed on a yellow cloth denoting its religious importance.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Used as a talisman for attraction, cleansing, good fortune, and protection. Attracts tranquility, harmony, telepathy, whilst arousing tender passions. It brings happiness whilst helping to unblock feelings, and align or balance the emotional self. It enhances perception and therefore judgment. Moonstone lightens anxiety and reduces stress and is therefore good for meditation. It is said to ease feminine discomfort, leg cramps, swollen glands, insomnia, and bladder problems.
* Birthstone: June (Balance, good fortune, tender passion).
* Marriage: 13th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Cancer.

MOTHER OF PEARL

* Gemstone Physical Composition: The inner nacreous layer of a mollusk, or sometimes of a snail shell which has a natural iridescent play of colour.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 3.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

N
O

OBSIDIAN

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Obsidian is a natural glass formed from volcanic lava that cooled too quickly for significant crystallisation to occur.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: It may be uniform, striped, or spotted. Some inclusions give obsidian a metallic sheen, while internal bubbles or crystals produce a ‘snowflake’ effect, or an iridescence seen as flashes of colour
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* Gemstone Sources: Ecuador, Guatemala, Hawaii, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Java, Iceland, Mexico, and Russia
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: Obsidian has been used since prehistoric times for making tools, weapons, masks, mirrors, and jewellery. The very sharp shards of the natural glass have been fashioned as blades, arrowheads, and daggers.
* Gemstone Uses: Today most Obsidian jewellery comes from North and Central America.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Enhances the sense of discipline whilst encouraging fidelity, integrity and focus. In turn it expands concentration and inner vision providing strength and wisdom. It reflects ones flaws and then helps determine the necessary changes required. Benefits stomach, heart and intestines.
* Gemstone Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

ONYX

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Onyx is is a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. Or put more simply it is a striped, semiprecious variety of agate, with white, black, brown or red alternating bands. It is different from regular agate only because the bands of which it is composed are parallel and regular.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name Onyx originates from the Greek word Onyx for ‘fingernail’ probably due to its weak transparency.
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* Birthstone: February (Relaxation, comfort).
* Marriage: 7th and 10th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius.

OPAL

* Gemstone Physical Composition: It is a semi transparent solidified mineral composed of silicon and water.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 5 to 6.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Gemstone Uses: Opal is admired for its distinctive play of colour and for this reason is often cabochon cut.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Opals foster love, passion, loyalty, faithfulness, emotional expressiveness, warmth, spontaneity and dramatic ability. Black Opal promotes cosmic awareness and oceanic consciousness. Boulder Opal foster creativity and originality. Fire Opal inspires dynamic energy and intensity. Sonoma Opal induces emotional stability. White Opal enhances competency and efficiency.
* Birthstone: October (Hope, faith, confidence).
* Marriage: 18th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Aries and Libra.


ORTHOCLASE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Orthoclase (or feldspar) is an igneous rock forming tectosilicate (silicate) mineral and is a key component in granite. Orthoclase derives its name form the Greek word for ‘straight fracture’ because of its two cleavages at right angles to each other. Orthoclase crystallises in the monoclinic crystal system.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 6 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

P

PEARL

* Gemstone Physical Composition: An organic product. Pearls are formed in shellfish, especially oysters and mussels, as a natural defence against an irritant such as a piece of grit. Layers of aragonite, known as nacre, are secreted around the irritant and gradually build up to form the solid pearl. Light reflecting from these overlapping layers produces a characteristic iridescent lustre. With cultured pearls the irritant is introduced to the shellfish. In a nucleated cultured pearl a small bead is used as the nucleus upon which the layers of nacre are secreted.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Pearls vary in colour form white, or white with a hint of colour (often pink) to brown or black, depending on the type of mollusk and the water source.
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* Gemstone Hardness: 2.5 to 4.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
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* Birthstone: June (Modesty, purity, beauty, happiness).
* Marriage: 1st and 30th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Cancer and Scorpio.

PERIDOT

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Pronounced pear – ih – doh is also called precious olivine (magnesium iron silicate). It is a transparent green variant of forsteritic olivine associated with peridotite, a dense igneous rock. Olivine is a mineral that composes a lot of the earth’s mantel, which is the layer just below the outer crust. Forged in fire, it is created under great temperatures and pressures deep within the Earth, and sometimes extruded in basaltic lavas. Peridot crystallises in the form of rounded pebbles or in short vertically striated prisms. Peridot is classified as a Nesosilicate in the Silicate mineral group.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Peridot gets its distinct green coloration from ferrous iron which is a natural part of its crystal lattice structure. Higher quality peridot generally contain about 10 to 15% iron.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Olive green, yellow-green and brownish-green.
* Gemstone Sources: Burma (Myanmar), Egypt, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, and the USA.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6.5 to 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name means golden stone in Greek (peridona) and is also derived from the French word peritot, meaning unclear, reflecting the significant amounts of inclusions in a typical stone. As a jewel it was treasured by the Egyptian Pharos and in the Middle Ages it was worn to gain foresight and divine inspiration, as well as to protect against evil.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care: Peridot has a lower durability than many other gemstones. It is subject to thermal shock, therefore peridot jewellery should never be cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner due to its tendency to fracture. Similarly, avoid the use of a steam cleaner as rapid changes in temperature may cause fracturing.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Alleviates anger, anxiety and fear. It also acts as an aid to digestion and to combat insomnia.
* Birthstone: August (Fame, dignity, protection, success).
* Marriage: 16th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Leo.

PIETERSITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: There are currently only two known sources of Pietersite, namely China and Namibia in Africa. Each source is similar but distinct in character. The Chinese Pietersite is a fibrous a magnesium-rich alkalic amphibole whilst the Namibian variety is mainly crocidolite. Regardless of the source, Pietersite will always have brecciated, fibrous bands of blue, gold and red tiger eye type fibres in quartz. The fibrous structure in Pietersite has been folded, stressed, and broken apart by geologic processes. The fibrous materials have then been reformed and naturally re-cemented together by quartz. Stones and crystals that go through this process are referred to as brecciated, creating a finished product with multiple colours, hues and superb chatoyancy
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Colours include various blues, golds and reds appearing together or alone. Blue is the rarest colour followed closely by red. The blues range from a baby blue to dark midnight hue. Golds can be light to very deep and rich, sometimes having a reddish hue. All colour variations have a superb and striking chatoyancy.
* Gemstone Sources: China and Namibia.
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: Pietersite was discovered by Sid Pieters in 1962 while he was prospecting some farmland in Namibia, Africa. After his discovery, he registered the find in the mineral records of Britain. His discovery was published in 1964, and the material was named Pietersite. Currently there are only two known sources of Pietersite, namely China and Africa.
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It can be used to stimulate and regulate the pituitary gland to bring in line the other endocrine glands and to produce the necessary hormones to balance growth, sex, metabolism, blood pressure, and body temperature.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

PREHNITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Prehnite is a pinacoidal phyllosilicate that typically occurs within cavities of igneous rock formed through hydro-thermal action. Prehnite typically occurs in association with aluminosilicate minerals such as datolite, ferrierite, quartz, calcite, pectolite, and copper minerals.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Prehnite exhibits pseudo-chromatic coloration which give it a distinct pearlescent or mother-of-pearl effect.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Colourless, pale green, grey, greenish-yellow, brown, and blue.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Namibia, Scotland, South Africa, and the USA.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 to 6.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: It is a relatively rare mineral that was named after Dutch Colonel Hendrik von Prehn (1733-1785) when discovered in 1788.
* Gemstone Uses: It is typically cut into cabochons.
* Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It can be used in the treatment of disorders of the kidneys, the bladder, and the connective tissues, and for gout and anaemic disorders of the blood.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

PYRITE (FOOLS GOLD)

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: It occurs as cubes that have twelve faces, each with five edges.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Brassy yellow.
* Gemstone Sources: Chile, Peru and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: The name Pyrite comes from the Greek work pry, meaning ‘fire’ so named because if you strike Pyrite with a hammer it generates sparks. It has been used in jewellery for thousands of years, and examples from the ancient civilisations of the Greeks, Romans, and Incas have been found.
* Gemstone Uses:
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* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It brings strength, awareness of inner self thereby conveying a sense of inner peace. It promotes communication as well as protecting against illness. It improves circulation and is beneficial for digestion and oxygenating the blood.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

Q

QUARTZ

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Quartz is one of the most common minerals found in the Earth’s crust. It has a hexagonal crystal structure made of trigonal crystallised silica (silicon dioxide). The typical shape of a Quartz crystal is a six-sided prism that ends in six-sided pyramids.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: The crystals are usually found as colourless hexagonal prisms, with pyramidal ends and striations perpendicular to their length. They are often twinned.
* Gemstone Colour Variations:
* Gemstone Sources: Brazil, France, Madagascar, Russia, Switzerland, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness..
* Gemstone History: The name Quartz comes from the Greek word krustallos, meaning ‘ice’.
* Gemstone Uses: Used in the manufacture of glass and precision instruments.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Brings health, good fortune, and prosperity. Promotes confidence and eases melancholy. Enhances instincts and imagination. Balances emotions bringing love and harmony. Encourages perseverance, patience and restful sleep. Aids in concentration as well as conquering challenges. Benefits haemorrhage, emphysema, consumption and eyesight.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: 2nd Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Taurus.

R

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Dark to medium peach or rose pink usually with light cream coloured banding.
* Gemstone Sources:
* Gemstone Hardness: 3.5 to 4.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
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* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Promotes healing, comfort, harmony, amity and friendship. Encourages emotional expressiveness, kindness, tolerance, compassion and self-love.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

RHODONITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: It has a distinct pink or rose red colour.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Brazil, Canada, England, Italy, India, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses: Rhodonite is usually opaque to translucent and is carved or cut as cabochons or beads
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Brings good luck and improved health. Promotes good will and inspiration whilst providing a sense of direction. Helps overcome depression and loneliness.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

RUBY

* Gemstone Physical Composition: They belong to the same aluminium oxide mineral family (corundum) as Sapphire, and are both the hardest and toughest gems in the world after Diamond. They are formed by intense heat and pressure deep within limestones rich in clay. The primary occurrence of Ruby is found within metamorphic rock and volcanic igneous rock or basalt, and secondarily alluvial deposits.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: As is the case with most coloured gemstones, colour (defined as hue, saturation and tone) is the single most important factor in determining value. When describing the colour of Ruby, the hue is divided into primary, secondary and sometimes tertiary, with the most important primary hue being pure red.There can be a wide range of secondary hues from orange, pink, purple, and even violet. Of these secondary hues purple is the preferable as it tends to strengthen and deepen the primary red hue. Rubies can be transparent to totally opaque, and as with Sapphires they can exhibit a six-pointed star or asteriated effect which is caused by incident light reflecting off of microscopic, needle-shaped rutile crystals. Inclusions don’t affect the gemstone’s quality (unless they decrease the transparency), but act as the gemstone’s fingerprints.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Red, brown, bluish-red, orange, and reddish-blue. Only red stones are called Rubies and corundum of any other colour is a Sapphire. So if the red colouring is too light the stone is called a Pink Sapphire.
* Gemstone Sources: Afghanistan, Burma (Myanmar), Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and Thailand.
* Gemstone Hardness: 9 on Mohs Scale of Hardness..
* Gemstone History: It takes its name from the Latin rubeus or ruber, simply meaning ‘red’. The fiery colouring of Rubies was thought to be caused by an inextinguishable flame deep within the stone. They are mentioned in the Bible and in ancient Sanskrit writings as being the most precious of all gemstones.
* Gemstone Uses: Rubies are commonly subjected to enhancements such as heat-treating, fracture-filling, and flux-healing to improve colour and repair both fractures and inclusions.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Fosters integrity, devotion, happiness, healing, courage, passion, romance, enthusiasm and generosity. It also evokes warmth, inspiration, prosperity, high energy, power and leadership.
* Birthstone: July (Love, success, integrity, passion & promise).
* Marriage: 40th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Cancer.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

S

SAPPHIRE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Simply put, a Sapphire is the non red variety of Corundum (an aluminium oxide mineral) with Ruby being the red variety. Ruby and Sapphire are identical in all properties except colour. Corundum comes in many colours, and any colour other than red is referred to as ‘Sapphire’. Sapphire belongs to the same aluminium oxide mineral family (Corundum) as Ruby, but Sapphire is far more abundant stone due to the larger occurrence of its chromium, iron, and titanium colouring agents.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Most Sapphires contain inclusions which are visible to the human eye. These inclusions may appear as clouds, feathers, veils, silk fibres or rutile needles. The aforementioned needles can also lead to a six-pointed star or asteriated effect from light reflections bouncing off of these microscopic needle-shaped rutile crystals. These star sapphires are semi-transparent to opaque, and the star effect is more apparent when a cabochon cut is used for the stone. Sapphire is the most precious of blue gemstones, and is a most desirable gem due to its colour, hardness, durability and lustre.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Colourless, blue, brown, grey, orange, pink, purple, white and yellow. If the Sapphire is any colour but blue, it is preceded with a colour designation (for example pink sapphire or white sapphire).
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Madagascar, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, and the USA.
* Gemstone Hardness: 9 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name was originally derived from Greek sappheiros, the Sanskrit Kuruvinda sanipruja meaning hard stone and the Hebrew word sappir meaning gem.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Dark Blue Sapphire inspires creative expression, intuition and meditation. Green Sapphire simply brings luck. Orange Sapphire augments wisdom, optimism and friendliness. Pink Sapphire encourages generosity, love and loyalty. White Sapphire is associated with self-appreciation and spiritual development. Yellow Sapphire enhances intellect, study, knowledge and memory. Star Sapphire enhances the centring of ones thoughts and enhances the ability to understand the intentions of another. It helps to make one cheerful and friendly.
* Birthstone: September (Truth, sincerity, commitment, loyalty).
* Marriage: 65th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: Libra, Taurus and Virgo.



SERPENTINE (BOWENITE & WILLIAMSITE)

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Serpentine refers to a group of predominately green minerals that occur in masses of tiny inter grown crystals. The two main types used in jewellery are Bowenite, translucent green or blue-green, and the rarer Williamsite, which is translucent, oily green, veined or spotted with inclusions.
* Gemstone Colour Variations:
* Gemstone Sources: Afghanistan, China, England, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Brings happiness and success. Manifests desires and dreams whilst promoting acceptance, friendliness and independence. Provides stronger faith. Eases swelling and pain. Benefits sufferers of asthma and hepatitis.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a..
*
SODALITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: its name reflects its high sodium content.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Found in all shades of blue
* Gemstone Sources: Brazil, Canada, Greenland, India, Italy, Namibia, Russia, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: The most important commercial source of Sodalite is in Bancroft, Ontario, Canada. It was discovered during a visit by the British royal Princess Margaret, and for this reason Sodalite from Bancroft is sometimes called Princess Blue.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Protects from danger. Helps overcome despair. Aids people to think rationally and come to logical conclusions. Brings balance, independence, good judgment, and heightened perception. It is helpful with careers and career transitions. Benefits sufferers of swollen glands and insomnia. It is also said to combat the negative effects of radioactive materials and treatments, such as X-rays, radiation, and chemotherapy.
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: n/a
* Zodiac Sign: Cancer, Gemini and Aquarius.

SPINEL

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Spinel is in the aluminium oxide mineral family, and is found primarily within metamorphic rock, and as a primary mineral in basic rock. It is also common within peridotite, an igneous rock found at the boundary between the Earth’s crust and the mantle. In such magmas, the absence of alkalis prevents the formation of feldspars, and any aluminium oxide present will form Corundum (aluminium oxide) or combine with magnesia (magnesium oxide) to form Spinel. For this reason, Spinel and Ruby are often found together.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Black, blue, brown, green, orange, pink, purple, red violet, and yellow. With the most valuable colour being red.
* Gemstone Sources: Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Tanzania, and Thailand
* Gemstone Hardness: 8 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name is derived from the Greek word for spark referring to Spinels fiery red colour. Up until the late 1700’s, along with most other red gemstones, spinel was often confused with rubies. It was then that a French mineralogist named Jean Baptiste Louis Rome de Lisle concluded that spinel was actually a completely separate mineral from ruby. This confusion is apparent in the British Crown Jewels where the Black Prince’s Ruby and Timur Ruby are transparent red spinel.
* Gemstone Uses: Spinel is one of the few stones that is not normally enhanced or heat treated in any way.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Said to relieve stress and depression and assist with mental rejuvenation.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: 22nd Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

SUNSTONE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Sunstone is a transparent to translucent tectosilicate which is a member of the feldspar group (orthoclase feldspar). It is found as a constituent rock-forming component in feldspar rich granitic and syenitic pegmatites.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Sunstone can contain tiny flecks or inclusions called snowflakes, consisting of copper or hematite. Sunstone’s characteristic glistening or shimmering effect is caused by an optical phenomenon that is referred to as the Schiller effect. This effect is caused by thin, uniformly oriented, platy mineral inclusions and alternating layers of feldspar. These layers all interact to scatter reflected light when incident light rays refract off of the inside the stone. Sunstone is a relatively rare gem.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Brown, colourless, green, orange, pink (mauve) and red.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Canada, India, Norway, Russia, Tanzania, and the USA.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 to 6.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses: Sunstone is cut as cabochon when it is opaque, but transparent gem varieties can be faceted.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Inspires freedom, originality, sensuality, romance, sexuality, independence and luck.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

T

TALC

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Talc is a hydrated magnesium sheet silicate which is repellent to water and chemically inert.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: It is translucent to opaque with an iridescent or pearly lustre. Talc is the world’s softest mineral and the lowest mineral on Mohs’ Scale.
* Gemstone Colour Variations:
* Gemstone Sources: Worldwide
* Gemstone Hardness: 1 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses: Talc is used in cosmetics such as talcum powder, as a lubricant, and in paper manufacturing.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties:
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

TANZANITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Blue, brown, grey, greenish-brown, purple, and violet.
* Gemstone Sources: Tanzanite is a rare mineral only found in the Merelani Hills mining area of Tanzania.
* Gemstone Hardness: 6 to 6.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care: Tanzanite has a distinct cleavage plane and is softer than quartz. This means that it has a lower durability and is more prone to chipping than most traditional gemstones. It should never be exposed to sudden changes in temperature or extreme heat as this could cause the stone to fracture. Tanzanite’s cleavage also makes it susceptible to fracturing if cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner. A soft brush and warm soapy water should be used to to clean the stone, then it should be dried with a soft absorbent cloth. Jewellery should be kept in a protective pouch away from other jewellery to avoid scratching or chipping.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties:
* Birthstone: December (Contentment, understanding)
* Marriage: 24th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

TIGERS EYE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Tigerseye is a chatoyant stone made primarily of silicon dioxide (silica), and banded with parallel lines of golden-yellow, and dark yellowish-brown or reddish-brown. It consists of quartz (silicon dioxide) which is coloured by iron oxide, and crocidolite. Tiger iron is an altered rock composed chiefly of tiger’s eye, red jasper and black hematite
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Tiger’s eye derives its name from its colour and reflective qualities which are very similar to an actual tiger’s eye.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Brown, greyish-blue, red (achieved through heat treating), yellowish-brown and white.
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, Burma, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Namibia, South Africa, and USA
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History:
* Gemstone Uses: Is usually cut and shaped into a cabochon to maximize its chatoyant quality.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: It is stabilising, enduring, and can help build confidence and increase a persons sense of security. It is an excellent stone for developing and encouraging discipline and concentration, especially in children. This stone may bring abundance, prosperity, and financial independence. Benefits digestive organs, spleen, colon, pancreas, and infections.
* Birthstone: n/a
* Marriage: 9th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

TOPAZ

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Topaz is a silicate or ‘nesosilicate’ mineral created from a combination of aluminium and fluorine. It crystallises in the orthorhombic system and it’s crystals are prismatic in form.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Topaz is a transparent mineral that is tinted by various impurities which act as colouring It typically has high clarity and minimal inclusions which are visible to the human eye making it a very clean stone.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Blue, brown, green, gold, orange, peach, pink, red, white, yellow, and clear.
* Gemstone Sources: Most commercial topaz stone comes from Brazil, but they are also found in Canada, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Sri Lanka, and the United States.
* Gemstone Hardness: 8 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name topaz is derived from the Greek word topazos or to seek.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Inspires strength and leadership and tranquility. Golden Topaz builds generosity, happiness, humour, optimism, creativity, wisdom, inspiration, abundance and love. Green Topaz fosters forgiveness and understanding. Pink Topaz promotes honour and truth. Said to improve eyesight.
* Birthstone: November (Strength, wisdom, courage).
* Marriage: 4th, 19th and 23rd Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Scorpio.

TOURMALINE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Tourmaline is a complex crystal silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, boron, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium. Tourmaline is classed as a semi-precious stone and the gem comes in a wide variety of colours, whilst also encompassing a range of fourteen individual minerals that make up the wider Tourmaline group.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: This Tourmaline group includes Rubellite (pink to red), Indicolite (blue), Schorl (black), Dravite (brown) and Anchorite (colourless).
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Very varied. Includes black, blue, colourless, green, pink, yellow, and red,
* Gemstone Sources: Afghanistan, Africa, Brazil, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, USA, and Zambia.
* Gemstone Hardness: 7 to 7.5 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: The name is derived from the Sri Lankan word tura mali, meaning stone of mixed colours. It became a known gemstone in the eighteenth century.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care: Usually heat treated.
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Brings abundance and good luck whilst in turn promoting generosity. It dispels fear and helps overcome inferiority complexes. Assists in dealing with emotions, despair and death. It has a strong and protective influence. Helps avoid negativity. Tourmaline enhances concentration, sensitivity and understanding in turn encouraging education. It energises the body and mind. Facilitates sleep and provides benefits for headache suffers and aids blood circulation.
* Birthstone: October (Balance, endurance, safety).
* Marriage: 8th Year.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

TURQUOISE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Turquoise is is an opaque, blue to green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium that often contains iron. It is commonly found in microcrystalline, massive form, usually as encrustations, in veins, or as nodules. It occurs naturally in shades ranging from sky blue to grey green, usually in locations where copper is hidden in the soil in high concentrations. The blue colour is caused by copper, while the green colour is caused by iron or chromium.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Because its colour varies depending on the surrounding soil make-up, many turquoise references include the name of the country, state or mine where they were found. It is opaque to semi-translucent, light and very fragile.
* Gemstone Colour Variations: Blueish-green, greenish-blue, green, (with a matrix of brown or golden)
* Gemstone Sources: Australia, China, Chile, Iran, Mexico, Sinai, and the United States
* Gemstone Hardness: 5 to 6 on Mohs Scale of Hardness.
* Gemstone History: Turquoise was among the first gems to be mined, dating back to 6000 BC. Ancient Egyptians mined turquoise on the Sinia Peninsula, and turquoise was also a popular gemstone with the Mesopotamians, Persians, Shang Dynasty Chinese, and Native American Anasazi and Aztec Indians. Its name comes from the French Pierre turquoise, meaning ‘Turkish stone’.
* Gemstone Uses: Due to its opacity turquoise is usually cut and shaped into beads or a cabochon cut.
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Encourages family bonding. Promotes trust, love, kindness and innocence. Provides discipline, attention and understanding whilst inducing enthusiasm. Turquoise tones and strengthens the entire body, stimulating tissue regeneration, revitalising blood, and calming the nervous system. It is beneficial for circulation, bowel cramps and the chest area including lungs and respiratory system.
* Birthstone: December (New possibilities, happiness).
* Marriage: 5th and 11th Years.
* Zodiac Sign: Sagittarius.

U

UNAKITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition: Opaque granitic rock with main parts of the aggregate being quartz and feldspar, as well as greenish epidote.
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics: Very compact and hard.
* Gemstone Colour Variations:
* Gemstone Sources:
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: Named after its place of discovery in South Carolina, USA.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties:
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.

V
W
X
Y
Z

ZOISITE

* Gemstone Physical Composition:
* Gemstone Physical Characteristics:
* Gemstone Colour Variations:
* Gemstone Sources:
* Gemstone Hardness:
* Gemstone History: Named after the mineralogist, geologist, botanist and zoologist, and all round collector Sigmund Zois. In 1795, he mounted two expeditions to explore the land around the Triglav mountain. In 1805, the mineral Zoisite was named after him, since Zois was the first to correctly assess that the rock found by Simon Prešern in the Corinthian Alps represented a previously unknown mineral. Zois’ collection of minerals, numbering around 5,000 items, is kept at the Slovenian National Museum in Ljubljana.
* Gemstone Uses:
* Gemstone Care:
* Gemstone Therapeutic Properties: Brings harmony. Enhances imagination and increases perception. Promotes mental balance. Beneficial for alleviating migraine headaches.
* Birthstone: n/a.
* Marriage: n/a.
* Zodiac Sign: n/a.